Introduction to Computing


Exercise: Linux, Nano, FTP

Note that Linux is case-sensitive. Upper and lower case letters are treated as different characters by the Unix and Linux operating systems, thus NANO is not same as nano or Nano.

1 Start a remote terminal connection with Putty to Host

2 Logon: type your account name, press Enter. Give your password.

3Try some Linux commands and follow the results on the screen. First list command ls:

ls (press Enter)
ls -la

Your result:

The options (parameters) are separated from the command by a space. What difference do the parameters make to the list command?

cd public_html
ls -l

Try to understand access rights ( -rwx r-- r--) (user, group, others; read, write, execute) .

With the more command, you can print a file on the screen.

more index.html

To interrupt listing, you can quit with Q.

Then proceed to make another directory:

cd ..
mkdir temps
cd temps

Your result:

4. Practice using the nano editor. You are not able to use mouse here, instead, see the commands on the screen menu on bottom of the page. Notation ^x means pressing CTRL and X at the same time.

nano notes.txt

  type and edit some text. To close the editor:

ctrl-x   (y), enter
more notes.txt
cd ..

5. Transfer this file with a Secure File Transfer protocol (WinSCP):

6. Remove the file via Putty client connection session:
Click on the window to activate it. Change the temps as current directory and

rm notes.txt
cd ..
rmdir temps

Your result:

7. To trace the connections to a remote server, use

traceroute URL (i.e. or IP address

To close the connection, type


Look at the picture of directories in Windows and Linux.

You could work with the files in the home directory using the Z:\ drive through the Metropolia LAN in the classroom. Or when you are connected to the Tuubi portal, you can select Network drives. I do not recommend these. The connection does not give full control over access rights. The safest way is to use a shell client or file transfer protocol (WinSCP) to connect to the Linux server, and work directly in the Linux environment.

How to install pages on the Linux server:

Unix basic commands you can find in



Created by: Jaana Holvikivi
Updated: 25.9.2012